Ðàçíîâèäíîñòüþ âàëþòíîé ñäåëêè, ñî÷åòàþùåé íàëè÷íóþ îïåðàöèè, ÿâëÿþòñÿ ñäåëêè "ÑÂÎÏ". Ïîäîáíûå ñäåëêè èçâåñòíû ñî âðåìåí ñðåäíåâåêîâüÿ, êîãäà èòàëüÿíñêèå áàíêèðû ïðîâîäèëè îïåðàöèè ñ âåêñåëÿìè; ïîçäíåå îíè ïîëó÷èëè ðàçâèòèå â ôîðìå ðåïîðòíûõ è äåïîðòíûõ îïåðàöèé. Ðåïîðò-ñî÷åòàíèå äâóõ âçàèìíî ñâÿçàííûõ ñäåëîê: íàëè÷íîé ïðîäàæè èíîñòðàííîé âàëþòû è ïîêóïêè åå íà ñðîê. Äåïîðò-ýòî ñî÷åòàíèå òåõ æå ñäåëîê, íî â îáðàòíîì ïîðÿäêå: ïîêóïêà èíîñòðàííîé âàëþòû íà óñëîâèÿõ "ñïîò" è ïðîäàæà íà ñðîê ýòîé æå âàëþòû.
The operations "SWAP" are made not only with currencies, but also with percent. The essence of this transaction with percent is that one party undertakes to pay another percent on a rate LIBOR in exchange for receiving percent on the fixed rate for the purpose of generation of profit in the form of a difference between them. Thus the party having medium-term investments on the fixed percent, but short-term liabilities or liabilities on the reconsidered percent insures the percentage risk (a percentage position), "buying" the long-term fixed rate, or on the contrary.
Reviewing examples of calculations when carrying out currency transactions, it is necessary to study first of all examples of determination of exchange rate, that is a course of the seller and buyer at a straight line and the indirect quotation of currencies.
The purpose of currency speculation – long maintenance of a long position in currency which course tends to increase, or short in currency – the candidate for depreciation. Thus purposeful sales of currency are often carried out to create the atmosphere of uncertainty and to cause mass dumping and decrease of its course or on the contrary.
Consideration of calculations when carrying out currency transactions first of all are connected with definition of quotations. There are 2 types of quotations as it was stated above: direct and indirect. We will consider both look. For definition of the direct quotation, it is necessary to know the average both currencies.
Ñðî÷íûå âàëþòíûå ñäåëêè (ôîðâàðäíûå, ôüþ÷åðñíûå) - ýòî âàëþòíûå ñäåëêè, ïðè êîòîðûõ ñòîðîíû äîãîâàðèâàþòñÿ î ïîñòàâêå îáóñëîâëåííîé ñóììû èíîñòðàííîé âàëþòû ÷åðåç îïðåäåëåííûé ñðîê ïîñëå çàêëþ÷åíèÿ ñäåëêè ïî êóðñó, çàôèêñèðîâàííîìó â ìîìåíò åå çàêëþ÷åíèÿ. Èç ýòîãî îïðåäåëåíèÿ âûòåêàþò äâå îñîáåííîñòè ñðî÷íûõ âàëþòíûõ îïåðàöèé.
When determining the indirect quotation unit of foreign currency which is expressed in a certain quantity for a ratio with the presented types of currencies is necessary. These currencies also have to be average.
Arbitration transactions are made with goods, securities, currencies. The arbitration of exchange is carried out for the purpose of generation of profit on a difference of exchange rates in the markets of the different countries (spatial arbitration). A necessary condition for its carrying out is free reversibility of currencies. As the prerequisite discrepancy of courses serves.
Owing to that sale and purchase of currency in the different markets happens almost at the same time, the arbitration is almost not connected with currency risks. Arbitration operation can is performed not only with two, but also with several currencies. Rather small size of profit is, as a rule, compensated by the big sizes of the sums of transactions and speed of turnover of the capital.
The arbitration is a broad concept. Differ arbitration with goods, securities, currencies. In the historical value arbitration of exchange – the currency transaction combining purchase (sale) of currency with the subsequent commission of the countertransaction for receiving profit at the expense of a difference in exchange rates in the different currency markets (spatial arbitration) or due to course fluctuations during the certain period (time arbitration).